Monday, April 15, 2024

Was King James a Homosexual?

King James (1566-1625)

(Copies from chapter 24 of One Book One Authority, by Dr. Douglas D. Stauffer (pages 359-374)


The proclamation for King James I reads: “by the grace of God King of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in earth the supreme head…” So, who is this man with such a lofty title?

Most people know very little about the man, King James I of England. However, it seems the innuendo and slander, like most negativity, have received far more attention than the truth. The slanderous remarks directed toward his life and character find their origin with his enemies and, more recently, amongst the haters of the King James Bible and Christianity. King James was a Christian king who was also a very intelligent and godly man. [1] In fact, Sir Francis Bacon referred to him as the Solomon of Great Britain in his Epistle Dedicatory of The Great Instauration:

This regeneration and instauration of the sciences is with justice due to the age of [King James I] surpassing all others in wisdom and learning. There remains for me to but to make one request, worthy of your majesty, and very especially relating to my subject, namely, that, resembling Solomon as you do in most respects, in the gravity of your decisions, the peacefulness of your reign, the expansion of your heart, and, lastly, in the noble variety of books you have composed… [2]

This one dedicatory to King James I contradicts the impression of this man forced upon an unsuspecting world. His writings and the writings written about him paint two opposing pictures. Since space will not allow a complete treatise of the man, a major compilation of his writings is available by searching online “The Workes of the Most High and Mightie Prince.” However, a brief synopsis of his life follows for those interested in knowing the truth about King James I.

A Debt of Gratitude

The free world, and especially Americans, are oblivious to the debt of gratitude owed to King James I. Ignorance of history ensures that the lessons and mistakes of the past must be ever repeated in subsequent generations. The hopelessness of the situation is worsened by the fact that history books long ago ceased recording pertinent history and now spend an inordinate amount of time and space covering irrelevant subjects (like Marylyn Monroe, Michael Jackson, Elvis Presley, etc.). The history of King James I is a case in point. Under his reign, the world was coming out of Rome's dark ages. Great Britain [3] became united together under a free and Protestant government; the Bible was published throughout the kingdom; and the North American continent was successfully colonized. Considering only these major events proves this man’s impact was significant.

His Early Life

James Charles Stuart was born in Edinburg Castle in Scotland on June 19, 1566. He was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were staunch Roman Catholics. For this reason, James was baptized “Charles James” in a Catholic ceremony. On February 15, 1567, his father, the king, was mysteriously murdered by an explosion, with the Queen being suspected. Three months following the king’s murder, Queen Mary married James Hepburn, also suspected of involvement in the murder of Darnley. The Queen was soon forced to abdicate her throne.

Prince James, as her only male heir, was crowned King James VI of Scotland at thirteen months. John Knox preached his coronation ceremony.

King James VI grew up in Stirling Castle in the care of several evangelical Protestant tutors (preceptors or regents), including the Earl and Countess of Mar. Under the tutelage of four different regents, he studied and worked diligently. It was Greek before breakfast, then Latin and history, arithmetic, composition, cosmography, dialectics, geography, history, rhetoric, and theology. He had a great fondness for books. Even as a teenager, he was recognized as a serious scholar, retaining a lifelong passion for literature and learning.

The Divine Right of Kings

One of his tutors was a classical scholar and reformer named George Buchanan. He subjected James to regular beatings, attempting to instill a discipline in him so lacking in royalty, generally spoiled with a life of ease and leisure. At times, James remained firm in his convictions, especially concerning the source of the king’s authority. Contrary to scripture, Buchanan taught that the king’s authority derived from the king’s subjects. King James rejected this position, believing that scripture taught “the Divine Right of Kings.” [4] He believed kings answered to God and not to men, even a pope. King James stated that he was to live by example for his subjects: “…if he joins not therewith his virtuous life in his own person and in the person of his court and company by his good example alluring his subjects to the love of virtue and hatred of vice ...” King James expounded this divine right of a king in a speech to Parliament in 1609:

I conclude then this point touching the power of kings, with this axiom of divinity, that as to dispute what God may do, is blasphemy is it sedition in subjects, to dispute what a king may do in the height of his power: But just kings will ever be willing to declare what they will do, if they will not incur the curse of God. I will not be content that my power be disputed upon: but I shall ever be willing to make the reason appear of all my doings, and rule my actions according to my laws ... Therefore all kings that are not tyrants, or perjured, will be glad to bound themselves within the limits of their laws; and they that persuade them the contrary, are vipers, and pests, both against them and the Commonwealth. [5].

King James I believed that the king was also subject to his own established laws. By the time James reached age 12, his formal education was completed. Because of his strict tutors, he had learned to speak fluently in several different languages, including Greek, English, French, Latin, and Scots, and was schooled in Italian and Spanish. Because of his intense studies and linguistic abilities, he could speak to foreign diplomats without the use of a translator.

James officially assumed the rule of Scotland from his regents the same year, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583 (age 17). He also maintained peace with Queen Elizabeth I of England. One such historical event was his offering support against the Spanish Armada in 1588. The following year, James was betrothed to Princess Anne of Denmark. Shortly after a proxy marriage in Copenhagen in August 1589, Anne sailed for Scotland. The storms at sea nearly killed her, forcing a landing in Norway. James valiantly took 300 men to Norway to rescue his bride and make their marriage official.

Rumors and Innuendos

Roman Catholic Nicolo Molin, an Ambassador, said this of King James I: “...He is a Protestant...The king tries to extend his Protestant religion to the whole island. The King is a bitter enemy of our religion (Roman Catholic)...He frequently speaks of it in terms of contempt. He is all the harsher because of this last conspiracy (The Gun Powder Plot) against his life...He understood that the Jesuits had a hand in it.”

There are many rumors and innuendos concerning the morals of King James VI, but his writings reflect a true man of character. [6] He was a respected scholar and influential author. In 1598, James wrote a private letter to his firstborn son, Prince Henry. This letter included fatherly advice and instructions to his son concerning manners, morals, and the ways of kingship. King James did not intend to publish the testament and bound his printer to secrecy after ordering only seven copies for his private use. [7] Word traveled fast despite the attempts at secrecy, and so did forgeries. In order to stem the tide of the forgeries, James allowed the “Basilikon Doron” [8] (the “kingly gift”) to be printed as a book.  It became an international bestseller, being translated into several languages for a period of fifty years. [9]

King James wrote this to his son in Basilikon Doron: “I am no papist as I said before...Now the free gift of God (as Paul sayeth). It must be nourished by prayer, which is nothing else but a friendly talking to God. Use oft to pray when ye are quiet, especially in your bed...” He led a chaste life. Sir Henry Wotton (June 1602) said this of King James: “There appears a certain natural goodness verging on modesty...He wears short hair...among his good qualities none shines more brightly than the chasteness of his life, which he has preserved without stain down to the present time. Contrary to the example of almost all his ancestors, who disturbed the kingdom with the great number of bastards which they left.”

Thousands of examples proving the godly character of King James I could be provided. Consider these few excerpts from James’ own pen to his son:

·        “But the principal blessing [is] in your marrying of a godly and virtuous wife . . . being flesh of your flesh and bone of your bone. . . . Marriage is the greatest earthly felicity. . . . Without the blessing of God you cannot look for a happy marriage.”

·        “Keep your body clean and unpolluted while you give it to your wife whom to only it belongs for how can you justly crave to be joined with a Virgin if your body be polluted” (44)?

·        “Marriage is one of the greatest actions that a man does all his time. . . . When you are married, keep inviolably your promise made to God in your marriage” (45).

·        “But especially eschew to be effeminate in your clothes, in perfuming…” (46).

·        “Therefore first of all things, learn to know and love that God whom to ye have a double obligation” (47).

·        “The whole scripture is dictated by God's spirit…” (47).

·        “As ye are a good Christian, so ye may be a good king . . . establishing good laws among your people: the other, by your behavior in your own person with your servants” (48).

·        “There are some horrible crimes that ye are bound in conscience never to forgive: such as witchcraft, willful murder, incest, and sodomy” (48, emphasis mine).

·        “Abstain from the filthy vice of adultery; remember only what solemn promise ye made to God at your marriage” (54).

·        “Holiness being the first and most requisite quality of a Christian (as proceeding from true fear and knowledge of God)” (55).

 King of England

On March 24, 1603, Queen Elizabeth of England died. That same day, her cousin, King James VI of Scotland, was proclaimed king of England. James sailed to London at a time when an outbreak of the plague was killing one out of every ten of its citizenry. No matter what, cheering crowds gathered to greet and see their new monarch. On July 25, 1603, at the age of 36, King James VI of Scotland was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey. This effectively united the crown, and he became King James VI of Scotland and King James I of England. King James called his kingdom “Great Britain” and ruled from London. He also instituted a new flag by combining elements from the flags of England and Scotland.       

January 14-18, 1604, King James held the Hampton Court Conference to set the church in order. The Church of England was divided into three primary factions who were at considerable odds with each other. The Anglo-Catholic faction wanted to keep all the trappings and much of the doctrine of Roman Catholicism without submitting to the authority of the pope. The Protestant faction wanted the Church of England to be the State Protestant Church, similar to the Lutherans in Germany and the Reformed Church in Switzerland. The Puritans were the most thoroughly evangelical and biblically oriented wanting a complete break with Roman Catholicism and greater local church independence. Here, the new king gave a special commandment to make a new English Bible translation.

Fifty-four of the world's most learned linguists and scholars were chosen to produce this new translation. The six groups were split: two at Cambridge, two at Oxford, and two at Westminster. Unlike the devious work of Westcott and Hort, none of this work took place in secret. Even the drafts were readily circulated, and the public was free to make suggestions. In 1611, following seven years of translation, the completed work was presented to King James.

The authorized King James Bible has been called “the masterpiece of the English language.” It is the most published book in the world's history. Not all were pleased with this crowning achievement. Rome declared James a heretic King whose assassination would be commendable. During his reign, King James was kidnapped several times and survived at least four assassination attempts. One such attempt was called the Gunpowder Plot.

During the Parliament’s state opening, Catholic conspirators plotted to blow up the king and the entire Protestant Parliament. Thirteen men secretly smuggled 6,000 pounds of gunpowder into the basement under Parliament. Their plan was simple. Once they had murdered every ranking government official, they planned to install a Catholic-friendly queen. On November 5, only hours before the opening of Parliament, a search discovered one of the perpetrators lurking under the Parliament building. Guy Fawkes was guarding the gunpowder and waiting secretly with the fuse and matches.

Each of the perpetrators was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to execution. One of the men involved in the plot was the Attorney General, Sir Edward Coke. He confessed that they were attempting to restore “the Catholic religion in England.” This event on the 5th of November is commemorated every year by the burning of an effigy of Guy Fawkes.

Other Noteworthy Accomplishments

Under the reign of King James, successful English colonization of North America began. In December 1606, 104 colonists set sail for Virginia with the king’s blessing. On May 14, 1607, they founded the first permanent American colony and named it Jamestown after their king. The settlement survived after many hardships and deaths. The colony was preserved under the leadership of Captain John Smith with help from the Powhatan Indian tribes.

In 1612, King James I is credited with ending torture as a part of the English legal system. He also replaced burning at the stake as a means of execution and stopped the execution of “religious nonconformists.” He wrote: “I will never allow in my conscience that the blood of any man shall be shed for diversity of opinions in religion.”

 In 1617, King James I met Pocahontas, the daughter of the Indian chief as she visited England. In 1620, the pilgrims would land at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Death of the Heir to the Throne

In 1612, James's eldest son, Henry, died at age 18. His wife, Queen Anne, subsequently died in 1619. James often suffered great pain from various ailments, including gout, colic, and arthritis. On March 27, 1625, King James died at the age of 58. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. On February 2, 1626, Charles Stewart was crowned King Charles I of England.

Was King James a Homosexual?

Despite the lack of evidence and in spite of contrary evidence, some Bible critics and unscrupulous people are quick to use this baseless accusation against King James I, thinking that this somehow strengthens their attacks against the King James Bible. There is NO historical fact to lead one to believe that King James was a sodomite. There is no record of anyone alluding to any type of sexual deviance during his lifetime. There is no record of anyone witnessing James in a situation or relationship involving any type of inordinate affection toward another person. In fact, the accusations against him have no credibility, are based on bias and not fact, and stem from the attacks and innuendos of one man.

Sir Anthony Welden was an officer in the royal household of King James I. He was knighted by King James I in 1617 but subsequently dismissed from the royal court by the king for supporting the anti-monarchy forces during the English Civil War. He had also written racist writings about the king’s native Scotland. An example of his racism against the Scots is evident in his work, A Perfect Description of the People and Country of Scotland. In this writing, he calls the Scots a “stinking people” who hold “fornication…but a pastime.” His mockery of the Scots was unlimited and culminated in sheer abuse:

Pride is a thing bred in their bones, and their flesh naturally abhors cleanness; their breath commonly stinks of Pottage, their linen of Piss, their hands of Pigs turds, their body of sweat, and their splay-feet never offend in Socks. To be chained in marriage with one of them, were to be tied to a dead carcass, and cast into a stinking ditch....I do wonder that...King James should be born in so stinking a town as Edinburgh in lousy Scotland. [10].

This is the same man attributed with furnishing all future generations with the historical facts of King James I? After Weldon’s dismissal, he swore that he would have his day of vengeance. Future historians (and those wanting to smear an innocent man) are the pawns of his vengeance upon the life and character of King James I. Weldon not only hated James, but he also hated the entire Scottish race. Historian Maurice Lee, Jr., warned, “Historians can and should ignore the venomous caricature of the king's person and behavior drawn by Anthony Weldon" [11]. Modern Bible critics unscrupulously and unashamedly repeat these libelous remarks without as much as a blush. Modern version readers are swayed into believing the lies because of the constant barrage against the King James Bible.

Sir Anthony Weldon

King James’ son, Charles I, was executed twenty-four years after his father's death, King James I. The following year (1650), Welden’s FIRST accusations concerning homosexuality against King James I surfaced. His statements were generally rejected because many of the king’s contemporaries were still living. However, the enemies of King James I were overjoyed to repeat the innuendos and accusations.

Because King James I was a Scotsman ruling over the English, he endured the racism and slander associated with being an outsider ruling over the English people. This was especially true since he elevated some of his countrymen to be his councilors, replacing the once-powerful English Lords. Disgruntled courtiers and political opponents picked up the allegations against King James I by Anthony Weldon (and Francis Osborne) and began to repeat these innuendos to discredit his reputation.

While not accusing him directly of homosexuality, they tried to create questions about his relationships with his close friends and associates. These seventeenth-century critics seem to fall into two groups. One group consisted of those men whose political and personal ambitions were blocked by the king. The second group consisted of those who opposed his policy of merging Scotland and England into one United Kingdom. It is important to recognize that these allegations against King James I were made long after his death, supported only by those with a strong bias against him.

Unfortunately, without checking the accuracy of the information, some historians began to repeat these attacks against King James I. It was nearly impossible to pull in the reigns once the vicious cycle began. Like all faulty journalism, future historians simply repeated the unsubstantiated information of previous historians without further examination. This cycle proves the oft repeated saying: “If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it...and truth is the mortal enemy of the lie.” [12]. Like all historical revisionism, the vague allegations, rumors, innuendos, and speculation began to be repeated as though this was the historical reality. Fortunately, other historians sifted through the rumors to obtain the facts, and here are some of the facts of the matter.

Sham Marriage, Really?

King James I married Anne of Denmark in 1589 and remained married to her until she died in 1619. The modern Bible critics say that this means nothing since homosexual rulers have often maintained wives for public appearance's sake. This is a convenient spin to prop up this historical revisionism, but the facts prove that King James I was much more than a pseudo-husband.

Unlike many monarchs, King James I spent a great deal of time with his wife. He was openly affectionate toward her in public. He even wrote and dedicated many love poems and sonnets to her. Not to mention that after her death, he greatly mourned her. Then, consider the fact that James and Anne had nine children together. [13] Historical proof abounds concerning his devotion and loving commitment to his wife.

When the unmarried Puritan preacher, John Rainolds, objected to the phrase: “With my body I thee worship” in the Book of Common Prayer’s marriage service, King James I openly teased the unmarried academic. He said to Rainolds: “Many a man speaks of Robin Hood, who never shot in his bow; if you had a good wife yourself, you would think that all the honour and worship you could do her, were well bestowed." [14]. He also referred to Queen Anne as “his dearest bedfellows." [15].

In 1603, James wrote the following to Anne:

...I thank God I carry that love and respect unto you which, by the law of God and nature, I ought to do to my wife and mother of my children. . . not for that ye are a king’s daughter, for, whether ye were a king's or cook's daughter, ye must be all alike to me being one my wife….The love and respect I now bear you is for that ye are my married wife and so partaker of my honour, as of all my other fortunes. [16].

King James I wrote extensively including truths somewhat unique for most royal monarchs. It was common for kings to have a number of mistresses. King James I wrote otherwise. He taught that the king should be moral, faithful to his wife, and set a moral example for his people. In France, the king's mistress was considered an official royal court member. In fact, the lack of mistresses in James’ court is often used as proof that he was a homosexual. However, lacking mistresses is also a sign of a godly man leading a clean, moral life.

King James I wrote to his son about marriage in Basilikon Doron (updated to modern spelling):

Remember also that Marriage is one of the greatest actions that a man doeth in all his time...

When ye are Married, keep inviolably your promise made to God in your Marriage; which standeth all in doing of one thing, and abstaining from another: to treat her in all things as your wife, and the half of yourself; and to make your body (which then is no more yours but properly hers) common with none other. I trust I need not to insist here to dissuade you from filthy vice of adultery: remember only what solemn promise ye make to God at your marriage…

And for your behavior to your Wife, the Scripture can best give you counsel therein: Treat her as your own flesh, command her as her Lord, cherish her as your helper, rule her as your pupil, and please her in all things reasonable; but teach her not to be curious in things that belong her not: Ye are the head, she is your body; It is your office to command, and hers to obey; but yet with such a sweet harmony, as she should be as ready to obey, as ye to command; as willing to follow, as ye to go before; your love being wholly knit unto her, and all her affections lovingly bent to follow your will. [17].

James repeatedly taught the importance of morality and marriage. James wrote again in Basilikon Doron:

But the principal blessing that you can get of good company, will stand in your marrying of a godly and virtuous wife: for she must be nearer unto you, than any other company, being Flesh of your flesh, and bone of your bone. . .

First of all consider, that Marriage is the greatest earthly felicity or misery, that can come to a man, according as it pleaseth God to bless or curse the same. Since then without the blessing of GOD, ye cannot look for a happy success in Marriage…

…keep your body clean and unpolluted, till ye give it to your wife, whom-to only it belongeth. For how can ye justly crave to be joined with a pure virgin, if your body be polluted? Why should the one half be clean, and other defiled? And although I know, fornication is thought but a light and venial sin, by the most part of the world, yet remember well what I said to you in my first Book concerning conscience; and count every sin and breach of God's law, not according as the vain world esteemeth of it, but as God the judge and maker of the law accounteth of the same. Hear God commanding by the mouth of Paul to abstain from fornication, declaring that the fornicator shall not inherit the kingdom of heaven: and by the mouth of John, reckoning out fornication among other grievous sins, that declares the commiters amongst dogs and swine... [18].

Many of King James I's contemporaries wrote attesting to the morality and chaste living about which the king wrote. James pointed out how many innocent lives could have been saved if kings had been moral people. King James I wrote concerned the many civil wars started by the illegitimate sons of kings.

A Short Biographical Sketch


James Charles Stuart was born to Lord Darnley and Mary Queen of Scots at Edinburgh Castle in Scotland.


James' father was killed. Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate the Scottish throne due to her suspected involvement in the murder. Young James is crowned King James VI of Scotland at 13 months old. John Knox preaches the sermon at his coronation.


After 19 years of imprisonment in England, Mary Queen of Scots is executed for her part in a Roman Catholic conspiracy to assassinate her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I, in order to gain control of the English throne.


James marries Anne of Denmark—first by proxy and then in person. The couple will eventually give birth to nine children, most of whom will die in early childhood.


Upon the death of Elizabeth I, James ascends to the English throne. He is now King James VI of Scotland and King James I of England. He calls his new kingdom, “Great Britain.”


James holds the Hampton Court Conference in order to hear of, “things pretended to be amiss in the church.” During this conference, King James agrees that a new translation of the scriptures is necessary. He appoints 54 men to the translation work. The translators divide into six groups meeting at Cambridge, Oxford and Westminster.


Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, a Roman Catholic conspiracy to blow up King James and Parliament. Guido (Guy) Fawkes, Jesuits Garnet and Owldcorne, and other conspirators are tried and executed.


In response to Roman Catholic resuscitation, Parliament issues legislation that includes an Oath of Allegiance. Controversy over the Oath rages across Europe.


Colonists sent by the Virginia Company arrive in Jamestown, Virginia. Jamestown (named after King James I) will go on to become the first permanent English settlement on the American mainland—thereby making King James VI & I the founding monarch of the United States.


The Authorized Version of the scriptures (the King James Bible) is published.


Prince Henry, James’ eldest son and heir apparent, dies at 18 years of age. King James has the body of Mary Queen of Scots interred in Westminster Abbey in London.


“The Workes,” a collection of the king's writings, is published.


King James issues The Kings Majesties Declaration to His Subjects Concerning Lawful Sports to be Used in response to the Puritan practice of barring their fellow citizens from lawful recreations on Sundays.


King James’ wife, Queen Anne, dies.


Two meditations are appended to “The Workes”—A Meditation Upon the Lord’s Prayer; and, A Meditation Upon the 27, 28, 29 verses of the XXVII Chapter of Saint Matthew Or a Pattern for a King’s Inauguration.




King James VI & I dies and his adult son accedes to the throne as Charles I.


King Charles I executed by order of Puritan Oliver Cromwell and other insurgents after their takeover of the British government.



[1] The writings of King James often refer to various aspects of salvation, including regeneration of the believer, salvation by faith, and salvation as a free gift. In fact, he makes reference to one day receiving “white garments washed in the blood of the lamb.” Historian Robert Chambers’ description of King James biblical knowledge reflects the thoughts of a saved man: “He was deeply read in Scripture; he could quote its texts with great facility; knew it even with philological exactness.” James wrote to a friend and said, “Praying God that as you are regenerated and born in him anew, so you may rise to him and be sanctified in him forever.” James wrote “Holiness being the first and most requisite quality of a Christian (as proceeding from true fear and knowledge of God).”


[3] Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom formed in 1801 incorporated the whole of Ireland. In 1921, it became known as “The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland” with the establishment of the Irish Free State in Southern Ireland. In 1949, the Irish Free State cut ties with Britain and became the Republic of Ireland.

[4]“The king's heart is in the hand of the LORD, as the rivers of water: he turneth it whithersoever he will. (Proverbs 21:1).

[5] Extracts from a speech to Parliament, March 21, 1609.

[6] King James wrote more books than any royal monarch of any nation. He wrote books and pamphlets on a wide variety of subjects including theology, tobacco, witchcraft and the theory and practice of kingship. He was also an accomplished poet. He did his own private interpretations of Psalms and wrote a book on Revelation, along with a series of devotionals on the Lord’s Prayer.

[7] Only two of the seven copies are known to survive, one in the National Library of Scotland and the other in the Grenville collection in the British Museum.

[[8] Also referred to as “Basilicon Doron”

[9] These included French, Latin, Welsh or Dutch, Swedish and German.

[10] Rackwitz, Martin, Travels to Terra Incognita (Munster, Germany: 2007), p. 116.

[11] Lee, Maurice, Great Britain's Solomon: James VI & I in His Three Kingdoms, (IL: University of Illinois Press, 1990), p. 309-310.

[12] This quote is a case in point. It is misattributed to Joseph Goebbels yet there is no historical proof that he said it…only that he practiced it.

[13] Queen Anne birthed seven live children, two still births and at least three miscarriages.

[14] Stewart, Alan, The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & I. (London: Chatto and Windus Stewart, 2003), p. 197.

[15] London Society, An Illustrated Magazine of Light and Amusing Literature for the Hours of Relaxation, vol. VI (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1864), p. 170.

[16] Daybell, James, Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1450-1700, (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2004), p. 186.

[17] James I, King, Basilicon Doron, Of a King’s Duty in His Office (The Second Book), p. 97-101.
Note: The original work can be accessed at (James I, The Political Works of James I, Charles Howard McIlwain, Ed.).

[18] David Wilson, King James VI & I (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), Ibid., p. 89-91.